• interesting note: under Muslim rule, Spanish society greatly changed
  • remember when analyzing colonization: don’t only look at the facts, look at the change; what was the nature of the time/event? what was the intent of the colonization? how did it/they change?
  • 16th century concept of race emerges
  • Encomienda: ___ (becomes the Hacienda system in the 18th century)
  • the caste system: your place in society was decided from your parentage and your parentage was decided by your race
  • British Colonialism
  • kabul — lahore: largest amounts of opium and coccaine is STILL grown there
  • thailand was the only asian country to miss/resist british colonialism (whoa!!) because they had a very strong rule and community
  • how did the british change india?
  • colonization of the mind-these people became the modern day elites of india/pakistan/etc
  • took indian history, rewrote it, and taught it back to indians
  • the first country to free themselves from the europeans was Haiti
  • history of the american colonization = very violent; history of british colonization = a little more peaceful, more protests than physical violence
  • Philosopher Frantz Fanon: became a part of the algerian liberation movement; some of the books he wrote are some of the first books that describe experiencing racism; “violence frees from violence”
  • Edward Said: part of the liberation of Palestine
  • Orientalism: cultural appropriation is a facet of orientalism
  • Scholar Dipesh Chakraborty: why is western readings/history read and studied as universal, but if i want to talk about pakistan it has to be a pakistani author and pakistani theory (for example)
  • Settler colonialism is eliminative — not just about taking over
  • Development theory is essentially like gaslighting
  • Epistemic/epistemology
  • how does one know something?
  • how does one gain knowledge?
  • Is design a western “invention”?




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